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I. Bond Energy

A. The energy required to break the bond (the more energy required, the more stable the compound)

1. If a compound holds a low energy, it is very stable and vice versa

2. Atoms must be at a specific distance to form a chemical bond

II. Valence Electrons

A. Valence shell - the highest shell in an electron configuration (valence electrons are the electrons in this shell)

III. Lewis Dots

A. Shows the valence electrons (not to be confused with lewis structures)

IV. Electronegativity

A. The ability of an atom to attract electrons

1. Fluorine has the highest electronegativity value at 4.0, Francium and Cesium have the lowest at 0.7

V. Chemical Bonds

A. The attractive force that holds the atoms together in a molecule (ionic or covalent)

1. Ionic bonds have an electronegativity difference of over 1.7 and covalent bonds have an electronegativity difference of under 1.7

B. Ionic bonds are made of metals and nonmetals with a plus and minus charge that must cancel out, these bonds transfer electrons (higher melting points)

C. Covalent bonds are made of nonmetals only and built on electron sharing thus having a weaker bond

D. Electron transference occurs when the metal atom in an ionic bond transfers one or more electrons to the nonmetal atom (remember: nonmetals have more electronegativity)

E. Electron sharing occurs when two nonmetals share electrons in order to complete their sets of 8 valence electrons, thus creating a bond

1. Every chemical bond needs 2 electrons

VI. Lewis Structures

A. Shows how the valence electrons arrange atoms in a molecule

1. A stable compound is formed by the atom's achievement of noble gas electrons

B. Atoms acieve noble gas configuration through either the octet or duet rule

1. Duet atoms want only two electrons (hydrogen and helium only)

2. Every other atom wants eight electrons (octet rule)

C. Carbon atoms are always the central atoms while hydrogen atoms are always terminal atoms (these structures should also aim to be symmetrical)

D. Expanded octet rule - some atoms in a lewis structure can exceed the octet rule if they are placed in the center of the structure

1. E.g. SF6 ends up with sulfur having 6 bonds and 1 lone pair (14 electrons)

E. Oxyacids rules - hydrogen atoms can only attach to oxygens in a lewis structure

VII. Molecular Geometry

A. Molecular structure is the three dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule

1. This is shown through VSEPR models (pronounced "vesper")